In February 1930, aged 68, he took a short break in the mountains with two old friends, who noted that Nansen was slower than usual and appeared to tire easily. ", Nansen continued this work for a further two years until, in his final report to the Assembly in 1922, he was able to state that 427,886 prisoners had been repatriated to around 30 different countries. Director, Norwegian Polar Research Institute, Oslo, 1948–57. His son, Hans Leierdahl Nansen (1764–1821), was a magistrate first in the Trondheim district, later in Jæren. Fridtjof Nansen. She was also a celebrated classical singer who had been coached in Berlin by Désirée Artôt, one-time paramour of Tchaikovsky.  Nansen's chosen area of study was the then relatively unexplored field of neuroanatomy, specifically the central nervous system of lower marine creatures. Based on Nansen's observations of ocean currents recorded during the Fram expedition, Ekman concluded that the effect of wind on the sea's surface produced currents which "formed something like a spiral staircase, down towards the depths". Supplies would be manhauled on specially designed lightweight sledges. " He believed that the extent of the League's success in reducing armaments would be the greatest test of its credibility. His father was a lawyer with a distinguished record of public service. He is a scientist, explorer, humanitarian, and also Nobel Peace Prize laureate. After Norway's separation from Denmark in 1814, he entered national political life as the representative for Stavanger in the first Storting, and became a strong advocate of union with Sweden. Known for his innovations in Arctic expeditions, Nansen led the first crossing of Greenland on cross-country skis.  However, he was able to pursue his geographical and scientific interests through contacts with the Royal Geographical Society and other learned bodies.  Nansen's main task in the following weeks was writing his account of the expedition, but he found time late in June to visit London, where he met the Prince of Wales (the future Edward VII), and addressed a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS). Institutions and Societies from many countries had to wait their turn for him to come and give lectures about his experiences.  From water samples he showed that, contrary to previous assumption, sea ice forms on the surface of the water rather than below.  Later he was to express himself bitterly on the matter: "There was in various transatlantic countries such an abundance of maize, that the farmers had to burn it as fuel in their railway engines. He ordered a change of course due west, towards Godthaab; a shorter journey by at least 150 kilometres (93 mi). Many of these traits can be recognized in his scientific writings. In November, Nansen announced his plan: when the ship passed latitude 83°N, he and Hjalmar Johansen would leave the ship with the dogs and make for the pole while Fram, under Sverdrup, continued its drift until it emerged from the ice in the North Atlantic. In later life he settled in Copenhagen, becoming the city's borgmester in 1654. Wenig später führte er dann eine 25-monatige Expedition im Arktischen Ozean an, bei der er sich so nah an den Nordpol heranwagte, wie noch niemand zuvor.  However, uneven surfaces made skiing more difficult, and their speeds slowed. Otto Sverdrup, who took part in Nansen's earlier Greenland expedition was appointed as the expedition's second-in-command. All this, while thirty million people in the Volga region—not far away and easily reached by our ships—were allowed to starve and die. Despite Nansen's pleas on behalf of the starving, Russia's revolutionary government was feared and distrusted internationally, and the League was reluctant to come to its peoples' aid. As a young man Nansen was a great outdoor athlete, an accomplished skater and skier, and a keen hunter and fisherman. Es wird im Rahmen des EAF-Nansen-Projekts als Teil des Nansen-Programms der Norwegian … They encountered a large Eskimo encampment on the first day, near Cape Steen Bille. He is perhaps most famous for his attempt to reach the geographical North Pole during the Fram Expedition (1893-1896).  In 1954, the League's successor body, the United Nations, established the Nansen Medal, later named the Nansen Refugee Award, given annually by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to an individual, group or organisation "for outstanding work on behalf of the forcibly displaced". Fridtjof Nansen . Speed and manoeuvrability were to be secondary to its ability as a safe and warm shelter during their predicted confinement. [n 2] The edge of the pack ice was reached on 6 August and they shot the last of their dogs—the weakest of which they killed regularly to feed the others since 24 April. They would then cross to Spitzbergen where they would find a ship to take them home. The engagement surprised many; since Nansen had previously expressed himself forcefully against the institution of marriage, Otto Sverdrup assumed he had read the message wrongly. Betrieben wird das Schiff vom Havforskningsinstituttet.  The Norwegian parliament refused to provide financial support, believing that such a potentially risky undertaking should not be encouraged. Our part is to find the trail that leads to it. From then on were uncertain of their true position. , The idea of an expedition across the Greenland icecap grew in Nansen's mind throughout his Bergen years. Between 1906 and 1908 he served as the Norwegian representative in London, where he helped negotiate the Integrity Treaty that guaranteed Norway's independent status. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Fridtjof-Nansen, Fram Museum - Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930), The Nobel Foundation - Biography of Fridtjof Nansen, Fridtjof Nansen - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. As a young man he embraced the revolution in skiing methods that transformed it from a means of winter travel to a universal sport, and quickly became one of Norway's leading skiers. After his zoology studies, he took part in the fishing vessel The Viking’s journey up North to observe the Arctic fauna. Later, neuroscientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his research on the same subject. To overcome this, Nansen devised a document that became known as the "Nansen passport", a form of identity for stateless persons that was in time recognised by more than 50 governments, and which allowed refugees to cross borders legally. Fridtjof Nansen is Norway’s most advanced anti-submarine warfare class frigate, with the most sophisticated and modern anti-submarine warfare system. Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (Norwegian: [ˈfɾɪ̂tːjɔf ˈnɑ̀nsn̩]; 10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian polymath and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. She will explore some of the most spectacular corners of the globe. At the inaugural rally of the League in Oslo (as Christiania had now been renamed), Nansen declared: "To talk of the right of revolution in a society with full civil liberty, universal suffrage, equal treatment for everyone ... [is] idiotic nonsense. They sighted the Greenland coast a week later, but thick pack ice hindered progress. By 1901 Nansen's family had expanded considerably. Although scientific work was always closest to his heart, he first attained fame as an explorer. Interestingly, after Nansen's Fram expedition, the ship was passed on to another great explorer who secretly planned an expedition to the South Pole - Roald Amundsen. Fridtjof Nansen was a polar explorer, scientist, diplomat, and even a Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Nansen's daughter Liv recorded that there were no speeches, just music: Schubert's Death and the Maiden, which Eva used to sing. On 17 May 1905, Norway's Constitution Day, Nansen addressed a large crowd in Christiania, saying: "Now have all ways of retreat been closed.  Without delay Nansen and Johansen sailed for Tromsø, where they were reunited with their comrades. Among the initiatives he introduced was the "Nansen passport" for stateless persons, a certificate that used to be recognised by more than 50 countries. , Within a few months of the war's end in November 1918, a draft agreement had been accepted by the Paris Peace Conference to create a League of Nations, as a means of resolving disputes between nations by peaceful means. After the First World War, he was in charge of the exchanges of 400,000 prisoners of war between Russia, Germany, and the former Austria-Hungary. ", Nansen was now considered an oracle by all would-be explorers of the north and south polar regions. " Days of extreme frustration followed as they drifted south. His ship, Fram (i.e., “Forward”; now preserved outside Oslo), was built according to his ideas. He wrote papers on zoological and histological subjects, illustrated by excellent drawings. Nansen is considered the first Norwegian defender of the neuron theory, originally proposed by Santiago Ramón y Cajal.  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