> The bulk modulus (K) is like Young's modulus, except in three dimensions. <> The perpendicular distance from the midpoint between the slits to the screen is 7.65 m. The distance between the two third-order antinodes on opposite sides of the pattern is 32.9 cm. Young’s modulus Experiment. Ensure safety measures are in place below masses and along wires. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F1 and F2. The reference wire supports a vernier scale which will measure the extension of the test wire. 6. The interference pattern is then projected onto a screen where reliable measurements can be made of L and y for a given bright spot with order value m. Knowing these four values allows a student to determine the value of the wavelength of the original light source. Related documents. "��Z��Q��K2=N8X��. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. A wise choice is to choose the meter as the unit to which all other measured values are converted. endobj Before substituting these measured values into the above equation, it is important to give some thought to the treatment of units. The values found were 0.57±0.02 for Poisson’s Ratio and 5±2GPa for Young’s modulus. The determination of the wavelength demands that the above values for d, y, L and m be substituted into Young's equation. Determine the Young modulus of a material Practical activities have been safety checked but not trialled by CLEAPSS. The appropriate measurements are listed on the diagram. <> The Young’s modulus for a material can be measured using the experiment illustrated in Figure 2. c����J��B���ߒI�S{�;9��Z��K�x�V�-�`��$����K���5W٤H���GA�~r�jl��+���6m﷊����݈�n'�m㚏`�'�xK�VC��k�`�G#�����?���Y�;1��!�&���,�=� Young's Modulus Experiment ENGR45 – Materials Science Laboratory Chad Philip Johnson Submitted: March 14 th 2013. Part 1: To investigate the relationship between... View more. Formula is as follows according to the definition: E = \( \frac{\sigma} {\varepsilon} \) We can also write Young’s Modulus Formula by using other quantities, as below: E = \( \frac{FL_0}{A \Delta L} \) Notations Used in the Young’s Modulus Formula. Where, Young's method involved using sunlight that entered the room through a pinhole in a window shutter. endstream All the results for the correct constitution have been summarised in Table IX. Young's Modulus Experiment Lab report for Youngs Modulus Experiment. Use these measurements to determine the wavelength of light in nanometers. 1 The virtual physical laboratory is a suite of over … It was demonstrated that for each of these bluntness geometries, a set of approximate indentation … Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F 1 and F 2. Then convert all known values to an identical unit. Young's modulus. <> %PDF-1.4 I’ve made a video of the experiment here youtu.be/xASsYJo3zrM. endobj When both wires are taut, “zero” the Vernier scale. If doing so, one might want to pick a unit that one of the data values already has so that there is one less conversion. 7 0 obj stress over strain is called Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (Y). University. The slits are separated by a distance of 0.150 mm. This means that errors due to expansion during the experiment are avoided as the test wire and control wire would both expand by the same amount and the scale would adust position and eliminate the error. endobj Discussion on the effect of measurement uncertainties is included to help the more thorough experimental student improve the accuracy of his method. x��[K������s��I�������a�rrKb��&���o��"Y�4k���>������p�_O�=�?-�y^���?N�������������4K;t�����O�8ç��&�u��i���0�G�^��aU7�׋��y��ۿ�z��>�.�]V��jpa�,aW����q�����-�����R��M���:�u_/S��#�%6K����x�?n� By using this website, you agree to our use of cookies. The interference pattern was then projected onto a screen where measurements could be made to determine the wavelength of light. The Good Practice Guide draws together some of the background … Three representative tip bluntness geometries were introduced to describe the shape of a real Berkovich indenter. The reference wire supports a vernier scale, which will measure the extension of the test wire. Now that the issue regarding the units of measurement has been resolved, substitution of the measured values into Young's equation can be performed. 363 [2] x�u�Ak�0���:�J�;`I�v+�0v���F����$�]GY[����l ���1������+l����?G$�� Ztءǐ6��ӆbi ��̥��)و3�u�0�If��\FK&�,ͼ4�[�`[և6 �(+p2"�/�R�.mD�狃ʲ�A�Ƽ�壓�R�|��)����y2�TN��"ټT�T]���G,�L$�f��m X�nR��^=�� X꒨�)��ڛ2�B�Nd��+Sр�gܨ�ŊD������2 c�l5 Add masses in 100g increments, making note of the Young’s modulus(Y) 2. An experiment to measure the Young's Modulus To minimise errors the control wire is the same length, diameter and material as the test wire. Our aim is to determine the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. The slide with its slits is most commonly purchased from a manufacturer who provides a measured value for the slit separation distance - the d value in Young's equation. A student uses a laser and a double-slit apparatus to project a two-point source light interference pattern onto a whiteboard located 5.87 meters away. Light fr… 2. 3. helpful 120 13. Light waves from these two sources (the left side and the right side of the card) would interfere. Course. Since there are 1000 millimeters in 1 meter, the 0.250 mm is equivalent to 0.000250 meter. The CSM method is also pivotal for the experimental determination of the local creep and strain-rate dependent mechanical properties of materials, as well as the local damping of visco-elastic materials. Substitute all values into Young's equation and perform calculation of the wavelength. stream In this case, cm has been chosen as the unit to use. Apparatus . DETAILED METHOD 1. Since these two beams emerged from the same source - the sun - they could be considered coming from two coherent sources. The difficulty confronting Young was that the usual light sources of the day (candles, lanterns, etc.) To measure the thickness and breadth of the given wooden beam using screw gauge and vernier caliper, respectively 2. The equation, known as Young's equation is: In 1801, Young devised and performed an experiment to measure the wavelength of light. The relationships between indentation responses and Young's modulus of an indented material were investigated by employing dimensional analysis and finite element method. AppliedStatics (eme1016) Uploaded by. The slits are separated by 0.25 mm. As is evident here, the wavelength of visible light is rather small. The distance measured between the central bright band and the fourth bright band is 8.21 cm. d. Two sources separated by 0.500 mm produce an interference pattern 525 cm away. f. The fifth antinodal line and the second nodal line on the opposite side of an interference pattern are separated by a distance of 32.1 cm when the slits are 6.5 m from the screen. Today's classroom version of the same experiment is typically performed using a laser beam as the source. In solid mechanics, Young’s modulus is defines as the ratio of the longitudinal stress over longitudinal strain, in the range of elasticity the Hook’s law holds (stress is directly proportional to strain). This distance is equivalent with the distance from the central bright band to the first antinode. Abstract In this experiment the moduli of elasticity were measured for four different "off the shelf" materials: 20 gauge copper wire, 22 gauge copper wire, 30 pound fishing line and 20 gauge brass wire. The data collected in the video can be used to complete a table and graph. Comments. ), Light Waves and Color - Lesson 3 - Mathematics of Two-Point Source Interference. In solid mechanics, Young’s modulus is defines as the ratio of the longitudinal stress over … And observe that they do not state the actual values of L and y; the value of y is expressed in terms of L. ). 2. It is the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain. λ = ( 22.5 cm ) • ( 0.0298 cm ) / [ ( 10 ) • ( 1020 cm ) ]. Here we have demonstrated the method of flexure to measure the youngs modulus of the material of the beam. g. If two slits 0.100 mm apart are separated from a screen by a distance of 300 mm, then the first-order minimum will be 1 cm from the central maximum. It may be remarked here that in the case of organometallic compounds there is … Jeff• 1 year ago. Chai Hao. stream Two methods are used to measure Young's modulus of the bar in both uniform and non-uniform bending. Pin and Microscope arrangement, Scale ,Vernier calipers, Screw gauge, Weight hanger, Material bar or rod. %äüöß The maximum depression is produced at its centre. The first-order minimum is the first nodal position and is thus the m = 0.5 node. Share. © 1996-2020 The Physics Classroom, All rights reserved. Measure initial length of wires 5. This experiment was conducted to determine Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus for Perspex. endobj ( Note that there are 10 spacings between the central anti-node and the tenth bright band or tenth anti-node. Footnotes. ). The first experiments that used the concept of Young's modulus in its current form were performed by the Italian scientist Giordano Riccati in 1782, pre-dating Young's work by 25 years. Please sign in or register to post comments. Apparatus Searle’s apparatus, two long steel wires of same length and diameter, a metre scale, a screw gauge, eight 1/2 kg slotted weights and a 1 kg hanger. To calculate … Finally convert to nanometers using a conversion factor. Then the graph can be analysed to determine E. 3 0 obj Today's classroom version of the same experiment is typically performed using a laser beam as the source. Since all spacings are the same distance apart, the distance between the second and the fifth bright bands would be the same as the distance between the central and the third bright bands. The technique is sensitive enough to be able to detect changes in the elasticity modulus with a temperature change of just a few degrees. Young’s modulus is named after Thomas Young,19th century,British scientist. The unit of wavelength is cm. Apply your understanding by interpreting the following statements and identifying the values of y, d, m and L. Finally, perform some conversions of the given information such that all information share the same unit. And there are 1.5 spacings from the central anti-node in the opposite direction out to the second nodal line. It is a measure of volumetric elasticity, calculated as volumetric stress divided by volumetric strain. What would be the measured wavelength of light? One means of resolving the issue of nonuniform units is to simply pick a unit of length and to convert all quantities to that unit. Light from the laser beam diffracts through the slits and emerges as two separate coherent waves. Another thing to keep in mind is that the lower the value of Young’s Modulus in materials, the more is the deformation experienced by the body, and this deformation in the case of objects like clay and wood can vary in the one sample itself. Our aim is to determine the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. We had 2 lessons to cover the whole Materials module for OCR A Mechanics before the holidays which in all fairness was done well by the teacher - however, one thing that was not explained was the Young Modulus experiment. 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