The Siege of Jerusalem lasted four months, after which the city agreed to surrender, but only to Umar personally. , The Byzantine army decided on a less ambitious plan, and Vahan now aimed to break the Muslim army at specific points. When news of the disaster reached Heraclius at Antioch, the emperor was devastated and enraged. Nicolle (1994): 25,000 maximum. Abu Bakr's confidence grew, and once Khalid established his stronghold in Iraq, Abu Bakr issued a call to arms for the invasion of Syria in February 634. When the first civil war broke out in the Muslim empire as a result of the murder of Uthman and the nomination of Ali as caliph, the Rashidun Caliphate was succeeded by the Umayyad dynasty, with Syria as its core and Damascus its capital for the next century to come. (a town in Syrian and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend who agreed with him in his opinion about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. Under the two-pronged attack, the Byzantine left wing fell back and collapsed and fell back to the Byzantine left centre, greatly disordering it. , Once the rebels had been subdued, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest, beginning with Iraq. Britannica (2007): "More than 50,000 byzantine soldiers died".  After his overwhelming victories over the Persians and their allies in the Caucasus and Armenia, Heraclius launched a winter offensive against the Persians in Mesopotamia in 627, winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Nineveh thus threatening the Persian capital city of Ctesiphon. Khalid vs. Burlinson at Cage Warriors 118 on Tapology. Amr, the Muslim right wing commander ordered his cavalry regiment to counterattack, which neutralized the Byzantine advance and stabilized the battle line on the right for some time, but the Byzantine numerical superiority caused them to retreat towards the Muslim base camp. Heraclius defeated them with far fewer battles to his name. At this point Khalid and his mobile guard came out of the fort and devastated their army by attacking them from the rear. The right wing was commanded by Gregory and the left by Qanatir. Five massive armies were launched in June to recapture Syria. Jabalah's lightly armed Christian Arabs would march to Emesa from Aleppo via Hama and hold the main Muslim army at Emesa. His parting words which he repeated to each of the corps commanders, were as follows: In your march be not hard on yourself or your army. u/0ri00n. But Khalid freed the Emperor Heraclius and his daughter as … Khalid, commanding the advance guard, reached Fahl first and found that the Byzantines had flooded the plains by blocking the River Jordan. The Muslims besieged Emesa which was finally conquered in March 636 CE after two months. I entrust you to the care of Allah.  The Muslim armies fell back except for one regiment, led by Ikrimah bin Abi Jahal, which was on the left of Abu Ubaidah's corps. Khalid avoided the Mesopotamian route because of the presence of Roman garrisons there and in Northern Syria. The Muslim right wing enjoyed assistance from the mobile guard but not the left wing, and the numerical advantage the Byzantines enjoyed caused the Muslim positions to be overrun, with soldiers retreating towards base camps.  The surviving Muslim forces retreated to Medina. Thus the centre remained stable, but on the wings the situation was different. Strategically, there was only one prominence in the battlefield: a 100 m (330 ft) elevation known as Tel al Jumm'a, and for the Muslim troops concentrated there, the hill gave a good view of the plain of Yarmouk.  Heraclius took to the sea on a ship to Constantinople in the night. The Muslim right wing and right centre again fell back. On Khalid's advice the Muslim forces retreated to Dara’ah (or Dara) and Dayr Ayyub, covering the gap between the Yarmouk Gorges and the Harra lava plains, and established a line of camps in the eastern part of the plain of Yarmouk. The citizens were granted peace on the promise of annual tribute and the Byzantine army was given three days to go as far as they could. Donner (1981): 100,000. Meanwhile, Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah, the supreme commander of the Muslim armies in Syria, had ordered Shurhabil ibn Hasana to attack Bosra. After successful campaigns against the Sassanids and the ensuing conquest of Iraq, Khalid established his stronghold in Iraq. Damascus fell in September, followed by the Battle of Fahl in which the last significant garrison of Palestine was defeated and routed. Even then, they were at no substantial tactical disadvantage. Khalid has narrated a number of hadiths from Prophet Muhammad (s). 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